Dr. Elvyda Lazauskaitė. Introduction. "The Lithuanian art collection of Jaunius Gumbis"

Dr. Elvyda Lazauskaitė. Introduction. "The Lithuanian art collection of Jaunius Gumbis"

Folk art most strongly reveals the nation’s world view, customs, and lifestyle and depicts traces of the most difficult times and turmoil, pain of losses, hope and faith. Many artworks have been taken from Lithuania. Those that remain must therefore be protected as the nation’s livelihood and asset.

The National Museum of Lithuania holds the largest collection of Lithuanian historical heritage – folk art, paintings and graphic art; it publishes art catalogues and displays art at exhibitions. Members of the public interested in the culture and art of the country help supplement the existing collections. Their interest encourages them to collect and preserve art.

Since 2012, the museum together with Lithuanian collectors, has curated the traditional cycle of exhibitions called ‘Museum and Collector.’ As a result, many previously unknown works of art have been brought to light. Over a period of two decades, Dr Jaunius Gumbis,  advocate and collector, has accumulated a valuable collection of Lithuanian art. “I am not collecting these works to look at them privately. Let society see them, and let scholars makeresearch. I don’t think I am the exclusive owner of these works. The artists did notcreate these works for my sole pleasure. I have only acquired them with my own funds.” the collector said. When he started collecting paintings, he also became interested in folk sculpture. This was a conscious choice as these areas of art share the same subjects, a similar way of depicting subjects, and frequently the same artists who both carved sculptures and painted paintings. Sculpture and painting often form an integral composition [1].

The vast majority of the Lithuanian art collection consists of folk sculptures and paintings of the eighteenth–early twentieth centuries. Part of the collection is made up of works of art which reflect the origins of art in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL). Portrait painting in the GDL is characterised by the simplicity of images and the naïve form of painting replicating the folk painting tradition. The collection contains portraits of Duke Karol Stalisław Radziwiłł (1669–1719) himself a descendant of the Gediminids (a dynasty of GDL monarchs), Krzysztof Jundziłł, marshal of Grodno Sejm, and Zygmunt Boufał, deputy elder of Grodno Sejm. Professional artists are also represented and include Lukasz Smuglewicz (1871–1944), “St. Roch”, Wincenty Sleńdziński (1837–1909), “The Holy Family”, Franciszek Smuglewicz  (1745–1807), “Apostle James the Less (Junior)”, “Redemption Allegory” and “David In Front Of King Saul”, Konstanty Górski (1868–1934), “Visitation”, Kanuty Rusiecki (1800–1860), “The Harvester”, Stanisław Jarocki (1872–1944), “Christ’s Vision (?)”; two pieces of graphic art – Józef Perkowski (1864–1940), “Chapel” and “Landscape”; and two bas reliefs by sculptor Juozas Zikaras (1881–1944), “Jesus Christ” and “St Casimir”.

Some of the paintings of the collection are important for art history. “Weeping St Peter”, a painting by Stanislovas Daunoras (from the collection of painter Antanas Žmuidzinavičius [1876–1966]) was exhibited at the 11th exhibition of old paintings staged by the Lithuanian Art Society [2]. Several pieces of the collection appeared in the “Lithuanian Folk Art Album” [3].

Back in the early twentieth century, researchers Michał Eustachy Brensztejn, Józef Perkowski, and Paulius Galaunė wrote that professional art affected the origins of folk art [4]. Masters created their saints by building on images they had seen in churches, heard about in sermons, and read about in books about the lives of the saints. Depiction of saints was influenced by small devotional pictures and folk engravings and print. For example, the painting of “St John Nepomucene” was painted according to the steel engraving of Antoni Oleszczyński (1794–1879) [5]. 

Stories of the lives of saints were an important source for both folk artists and professional painters. “Golden Legend”, a collection of hagiographies by an Italian Dominican friar, Jacobus de Voragine, written in the second half of the thirteenth century, was widespread in Christian Europe and available in the libraries of monasteries in Lithuania. Based on these readings, in the nineteenth century Samogitian Bishop, Motiejus Valančius, described stories of the lives and martyrdom of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary and the saints. His books [6] popularly called “The Lives of the Saints” were dedicated to believers, so that they would have a better understanding of sermons. For those who carved images of God they were an important source of images of the saints.

The carvers of images of God provided their own interpretation of themes taken from a variety of sources and created their own pieces of painting or sculpture.

Folk sculpture is most broadly represented in the collection by the traditional folk sculptures from the region of Samogitia. The majority of sculptures were made for shrines and pillar-type shrines with figurines of the saints. The shrines built on farmsteads usually contained as many figurines as the number of family members that lived on the farmstead, so that each would have his own protector and guardian. Some figurines came from private homes and churches.

The dominant stories of Jesus Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary testify to their special place in the devotion of Lithuanians [7]. Stories of male and female saints form a separate group. Sculptures of the collection reflect the main subjects of folk sculpture inspired by people’s world view and traditions. There are also subjects, which cannot be attributed to the subject of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary or the saints, although they are in some ways related to them. These subjects do not depict any episode from the life of Christ, the Virgin Mary or the saints, but seem to be touching upon the essence of human existence and mystery of human fate. Existential aspirations and contemplations reflect in the folk art subjects of the Holy Trinity and the Holy Family [8].

The names of the masters of most of the works are unknown. Only one sculpture of “St Anthony” has the initials of master Jonas Danauskas (1855–1937) inscribed. Danauskas was from Šiauliai County, Klovainiai Rural Area, Moniūnai Village. Information about a few other authors was obtained using the material available in the museum. The fragment of an oak cross has clear features of the hand of Vincas Svirskis (1835–1916), a carver from Kėdainiai County, Krekenava Rural Area, Glitėnai Village who created images at the turn of the 20th century. Kazimieras Indriekus (1855–1925), the author of the figurine of “Jesus of Nazareth”, came from Telšiai County, Tryškiai Rural Area, Patelkėnai Village. Many residents of surrounding villages possessed sculptures made by him. A shrine with a sculpture of the “Pensive Christ” was made by Juozapas Paulauskas (1860–1945) from Kretinga County, Darbėnai Rural Area, Grūšlaukės Village. The author of the sculpture depicting a biblical scene “St Isidore the Ploughman” was Kazimieras Razma (1851–1931) from Tauragė County, Žemaičių Naumiestis Rural Area, Venckai Village [9]. The figurine of the “Our Lady of Sorrows” from the “Scene of Laying Jesus in the Tomb” was carved by Juozapas Stankus (1894–1952), born in Tauragė County, Upyna Rural Area, Pazimkalnis Village and who lived in Gegužiai Village. Carvers of images of God were the same villagers except that they dedicated less time to farming, some of them saw some of the world, and could read and write. Appreciated by their neighbours and not scorned by priests, these people carved sculptures of saints for the residents of their own and surrounding villages and painted paintings for churches and shrines [10]. Their world view and attitude of mind were the same as those of the people in the villages where they grew up. Similarities arising from the sameness of the spiritual and cultural environment, showed a connection between the master and that for whom he created and that which he depicted.

Sculptures in the round, bas reliefs and high reliefs of the collection were created in traditional ways: carved from linden tree, apple-tree, birch, and poplar using ordinary tools – several knives, gauges, and chisels. Most of the sculptures are 30–50 cm in size. One exclusive well-preserved sculpture “Jesus with a Reed” from Joniškis District, Žukaičiai Village is over one metre high. Large sculptures usually adorned the altar of a church. Most of the sculptures are painted with oil paint, but do not always observe iconographic canon. Aluminium or bronze powder coat was used to emphasise the details of a sculpture; attributes were made from wire or tin. The condition of polychrome tells us where the sculptures were kept. Those kept in an enclosed space are best preserved, the wood is stronger, and the paint is less faded. Some of the sculptures have been repainted.

The essential feature of folk sculpture is depiction ranging from primitive to realistic. Sculptures in the round dominate. Such sculptures as “The Gate of Dawn Mother of Mercy”and “Protectors against fire” complement the scarce examples of relief carvings. Paulius Galaunė maintains that the scarcity of bas-relief sculptures can be explained by the fact that the compositions in such works of art are far more complex. Those carvers who had studied some sculpture created bas-relief sculptures [11]. The bas-relief “Protectors against fire” with images of the three saints – Lawrence, Agatha and Florian – is rare and exclusive because it depicts several patrons against fire in a single work.

Narrative scenes from the life of Christ – “The Holy Family”, “The baptism of Christ”, and “The path of suffering” – dominate. A few figurines of the “Pensive Christ”, which protected homes from all kinds of disaster, seem to have stepped down from a shelf or a window sill. One sculpture has the year 1842 inscribed on it. The exclusive shrine by Juozapas Paulauskas with the figurine of the “Pensive Christ” reminds us that the figurines used to be placed inside small shrines attached to a tree or the wall of the house. The figurine of the “Pensive Christ” by Petras Ivanauskas (1892–1961) from Zarasai District, the town of Salakas, is distinguished by its size and primitive carving technique. The photograph made in 1963 by a museum employee, Juozas Petrulis, and held in the ethnographic photographic records of the National Museum of Lithuania records the name of the carver and the place and date of the sculpture [12].

Less frequent subjects of “Christ’s Funeral Homily” and “Christ on the pole” supplement the individual known examples from the region of Samogitia. The spread of sculptures is an example of how images of the saints that masters saw in churches affected their creative work.

A separate sculpture “Joseph of Arimathea” has survived from the subject of “Christ’s Funeral Homily”. The figurine of “Mary the Sorrowful” comes from the sculptural group, which, as shown by the iconographic material of the museum, stood in the brick shrine in the churchyard of Pagramantis Church of Tauragė District [13].

The most popular story of the theme of Christ’s suffering is crucifixion. There was a sculpture of Jesus’ crucifixion in each home, most frequently in shrines. The theme of crucifixion in the shrines is supplemented with sculptures of Our Lady of Sorrows, St John the Evangelist, and St Mary Magdalene. One particularly expressive and colourful shrine depicting crucifixion is supplemented with instruments of torture.

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the most extolled of all the saints in Lithuanian devotion. Ignas Končius provides a vivid and informative picture of the relationship between a Lithuanian believer and the Blessed Virgin Mary: “Among the saints in shrines built in the yards, there is almost always the Blessed Virgin, asked first of all for help in household matters, then in the evening thanked for “support in the day.” In the morning, after stepping out of the house, She is asked for help for the new day, not to spare mercy for members of the household, to ease hardships, and give health, so that in the evening and next day it would be possible to say a prayer thanking for it. One’s “own” Mary is best of all, one goes to bed and gets up with her name on the lips. The first call for help is addressed to her.” [14]

The theme of “St Ann teaches Mary”, which depicts Mary’s childhood and learning, even gained national significance when there was a ban on printing in the Lithuanian language and script. The theme of the suffering Mother of God, which was so close to the heart of Lithuanians, is represented in sculpture by two images of the “Mother of Sorrows” and “Pietà”. An inscription on one sculpture of the Mother of Sorrows theme testifies human relations with the sculpture – dates of producing the sculpture and repainting the sculpture show that the descendants of the original owner took care of the sculpture, which was passed down to them as a family heirloom. The Pietà-themed sculptures reflect the sorrow of the Mother of God and show the moment between Jesus’ being taken down from the cross and laying Jesus in the tomb. The image of the Pietà is traditional. There are examples of pieces of art (“Pietà with angels”) where the composition is supplemented with kneeling or standing angels with candles who lament Christ’s death. There is one rare sculpture depicting Christ with the crown of thorns reclined against the seated Mary, which confirms that images of saints in churches served as examples for folk artists [15]

Sculptures of “Our Lady of Graces” were produced by carvers in the second half of the nineteenth century on the basis of the medal of the “Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary”. It is seldom the case that “Our Lady of Graces” is depicted with angels on both sides of the figurine; the only reference to the subject is the rays of grace emanating from her hands.

Sculptures of saints, loved by people not only as their intercessors with God, but also as role models in daily life constitute a separate group in the collection. Saints were respected because of their personal qualities – sense of justice, wisdom, and diligence. As a result, they became part of people’s earthly life.

Representation of saints in sculpture was based on church iconography observing the established compositions for the subject, colours and attributes. Consequently, there was little space for the master’s imagination. “St Barbara” is shown with an emphasis not only on her royal origin – with an ornate cloak, a long dress and tunic, a chalice with the Host in the hand and a sword, with which she was beheaded – sometimes she is unusually depicted as a village girl with a wreath of flowers. “St Catherine of Alexandria” holds a spiked wheel under her feet upon which she was tortured. Male saints – “St Anthony”, “St Casimir”, “St George” and “St Florian” – are depicted traditionally. One sculpture of “John Nepomucene” does not follow the established iconography and is carved with a stretched hand of the figure. The Evangelists, “St Paul” and “St James the Less”, are depicted with a book symbolising the Gospel. One sculpture of “St Florian” carved from a particular type of wood is not in good condition – its colours have faded, the wood is brittle, yet the face of the saint has remained very expressive. It was popular to attach sculptures of St Florian on a pole, so that the saint would keep an eye on the buildings and protect against fire. A rare sculpture of “St Thaddaeus” with both typical attributes and well-preserved polychrome is part of the collection. Another rare piece is the composition of “Praying Isidore”, which confirms the information published by art researchers [16] that the dress and posture in the sculpture testify that it is the owner, rather than the saint, who came to check whether Isidore was working. The style of carving shows that the sculptures of Archangels “Michael” and “Raphael”, depicted according to the tradition of the Christian church, were created by the same carver. The wings of two angels from one of the compositions are missing.

The valuable folk painting collection assembled by the collector consists of works of art painted on wood or canvas in oil or tempera in the seventeenth–twentieth centuries. They depict saints, moments from their life, Biblical scenes, and the life and Passion of Christ. The artists were either self-taught or were amateurs with some training. Many of them gained experience working with professional painters executing requests of churches and monasteries, and later of private clients. Their paintings show elements of individual interpretation and reveal their unique perception of the subject, faith, art, and beauty.

The majority of paintings are executed in the Baroque style of painting of the eighteenth–nineteenth centuries – human figures are flat and are shown either from the front or profile. Colours are pure without any hues. Combinations of dark colours of red, green and blue dominate. Full figures painted against the background of misty colours stand out from the natural surroundings by painting golden rays around the full size figure or only around the head thus showing special respect to the saint in the painting.

Saints are represented in isolation and in group compositions in full size. Several paintings show portrait size figures (“Behold the Man” [Ecce Homo], “St Casimir”) and reflect the connection with portrait painting in GDL [17]. There are paintings with inscriptions in Latin and Polish. Some paintings are dated and show the names of the saints. Many folk paintings are by unknown artists; some show the names of sponsors.

The paintings of the collection which were altarpieces are larger, with ornate authentic frames, and some are decorated with metal inlays as a sign of exceptional respect for the saint. Double-sided paintings of the collection used for small altars and rituals were sometimes carried during religious processions. Some paintings were dedicated for personal use.

The most popular subjects involve Jesus and Mary. Narrative scenes of the “New Testament” prevail. One subject – “David in front of King Saul” – is from the Old Testament.

The subjects involving “The Holy Trinity” and “The Holy Family” are represented in multi-figure compositions. There are three paintings of the “Holy Trinity” in the collection. There is one illusory painting of an altar which could have been in a village chapel or church in the collection [18]. One painting shows just one member of the Holy Trinity – The Holy Spirit – painted in the centre of the composition as a white dove emanating light rays among the clouds.

The paintings that feature the Holy Family show the Virgin Mary, St Joseph and the Infant Jesus among angels with the sign of the God the Father’s care. The only painting of “St Ann Herself Making the Third” decorated with metal inlays is also attributed to the Holy Family narrative. The painting “Holy Relatives” dated 1932 supplements the theme of the family relations. It is made from nine oval paintings, so a single painting introduces various folk art themes and saints.

The collection contains many narrative scenes of the Passion. There are four paintings of the “Stations of the Cross” series. The Passion of Christ is conveyed through multi-figure compositions. Colour shades and the painting technique show that they belong to different artists and were painted at different times. The same year – 1842 – is inscribed in two of the paintings and the same name of the sponsor.

The Passion of Christ in the Stations of the Cross became a popular theme of devotional pictures [19]. “Jesus in prison” and “The Crucifixion” are examples of such paintings. The collection also contains the painting “Jesus’ prayer in the Garden of Gethsemane” by a folk artist. It comes from the chapels of the Way of the Cross in Žemaičių Kalvarija [20]. The scene of the Resurrection of Christ is an iconic example of painting of the second half of the seventeenth century.

The subjects related to Mary in the collection reflect the main themes in folk art. The paintings of the “Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary” and “Gracious Virgin Mary” were painted in the second half of the nineteenth century. An exceptional subject uniquely interpreted by the master is depicted in “Mary’s Betrothal”. This painting with its rare theme of the three closest people – St Ann, Virgin Mary, and St Joseph – together was painted in 1861. There are several paintings depicting “Holy Mary with the Infant”. “Our Lady of the Holy Rosary” worshipped by the Dominican monks, reminds us of St Dominic’s vision mentioned in legends.

The painting of “Our Lady of Sorrows” painted by an unknown artist in the early nineteenth century is very rare ichnographically, as Mary is depicted in the scene of the “Descent from the Cross” by the side of the crown of thorns and nails, which she was handed after her Son had been taken down from the cross [21]. As symbols of Christian faith, the crown of thorns and nails mean crucifixion. Several paintings depict Pietà with the sculptural image of the mother lamenting over the Son’s death. “Pietà with St Veronica” is a less frequent example depicting Mary with other saints.

Images of saints in the paintings were interpreted in accordance with iconographic images. Elements of the landscape and architecture capture a more realistic environment making it more familiar to human life. Angels, who are almost an inseparable part of sacral space, represent the heavens. The subjects of the paintings are expanded by narrative scenes from the life and martyrdom of the saints.

The collection contains paintings of Lithuanian patron saints, St Casimir and St George. The painting (portrait) of St Casimir is an altar piece with the top part in an arch form. The representational painting from the eighteenth century, ”St George the Martyr”, highlights the martyrdom of the soldier. This is an exclusive iconographic type where the soldier dressed in the ornate clothes of a knight and armed with a spear is at the same time shown as a martyr with bare feet and with a palm leaf in his hand; such depiction is verified with an inscription in the painting. The painting of “St Anthony with the Infant” is particularly pious and refers to frequent visions of the saint in which he saw the Infant Jesus. There are paintings of “St Thaddaeus” and “St Jacques” of rarer iconography.

There are very few surviving religious paintings in the collection which used to be in nearly every household in the nineteenth century. There is a colourful painting dated 1873 executed in a primitive manner with images of St Catherine, St Anthony, Holy Mary, and St Joseph. Another painting of a broader subject depicts “St Anthony’s Miracle” with the donkey and a painting of “The Infant Jesus crowns St Joseph”, which are both rarer themes in folk art.

Replicas of the paintings which were famous for their miracles should be mentioned. The iconographic painting of “Our Lady of Trakai”, similar to the Byzantine hodegetria (‘She Who Shows the Way’) depiction, is a replica of the images of the so-called St Luke’s paintings of Mary [22]. The miraculous painting of “Our Lady of Częstochowa” [23] was also copied many times; the collection contains two copies shown as Hodegetria by folk artists painted in the early nineteenth century. The image of “Our Lady of Pažaislis” framed in the colourful flower wreath spread as an iconographic style of the painting and as a collection piece. The style of the painting “Mary with a wreath of flowers”was suitable for the collection of a secular person as a work of art which reflects the artistic realities relevant at the time [24]. The painting was well sought after by collectors and was part of the private collections of wealthy noblemen [25].

The works of art of the collection are divided in this catalogue according to subjects by providing description of the iconographic image of each of them.

In commemoration of the 215th anniversary of the birth of Motiejus Valančius, bishop of Samogitia and enlightener of the people, descriptions of the subjects are supplemented with extracts from his “Collected Works (Raštai)” [26]. Particularly since the interest of collector Jaunius Gumbis is not limited to visual art – he has amassed a collection of rare valuable Lithuanian prints.

The collection of advocate Dr Jaunius Gumbis is an example of how one person can contribute to the preservation of Lithuanian cultural values. From now on this material will be available to researchers, folk masters who continue the traditions of cross carving and folk painting, and everyone interested in the culture of the country. Perhaps this example will serve as an inspiration to collect.

Dr. Elvyda Lazauskaitė

Footnotes / literature:

1. Paulius Galaunė, Lietuvių liaudies menas, Kaunas, 1930, p. 235–236.

2. Lietuvos dailės draugija, Senosios tapybos paroda [katalogas], Kaunas, lapkričio mėnuo MCM XXVI .

3. Lietuvių liaudies menas: grafika, tapyba [sudarė P. Galaunė], Vilnius: Vaga, 1968.

4. Brensztejn M., Krzyże i kaplicy żmudzkie, Kraków, 1906; Galaunė P., Lietuvių liaudies menas, Kaunas, 1930; Perkowski J., O Żmudzkich figurkach ludowych matki Boskiej i Chrystusa „Smutkielisa“, Dzień Kowieński, Nr. 3, 29 sierpnia 1929, p. 195–205.

5. It is thought that the engraving had been made from the painting St John Nepomucene in front of King Wenceslaus by Franciszek Smuglewicz. See Vilnius from the Publications of Jonas Kazimieras Vilčinskis [catalogue of the exhibition dated 1 January 1999–19 April 1999]. National Museum of Lithuania, 2000, p. 45.

6. Motiejus Valančius, „Žyvatai šventųjų tų, kurių vardais žemaičiai užvis geba vadintis, eile abėcėlės surašyti ir išspausti Vilniuj kaštu ir spaustuvėje Juozapo Zavadzkio“, 1858; „Gyvenimas šventųjų Dievo“, Tilžėj pas Albreghs ir Comp., 1868; „Gyvenimas švenčiausios Marijos Panos“, Vilniuje spaustuvėj Juozapo Zavadzkio, 1855; „Žyvatas Jėzaus Kristaus Viešpaties mūsų, arba Istorija Naujojo įstatymo“, išspausta Vilniuj spaustuvėj A. Dvorčiaus, 1853; „Pradžia ir išsiplėtimas katalikų tikėjimo“, Vilniuje kaštu ir spaustuvėj Juozapo Zavadzkio, 1864.

7. Skaidrė Urbonienė, „Tradicinių lietuvių liaudies skulptūros siužetų pasiskirstymas“, „Lietuvių katalikų mokslo akademijos metraštis“ 21, Vilnius, 2002, p. 107.

8. Alė Počiulpaitė, „Tautodailės siužetai, personažai, jų vaizdavimas“, Liaudies kultūra 4, 1991, p. 40.

9. The cards which contain negatives of the ethnographic photographic records of the National Museum of Lithuania indicate that in 1956 Juozas Petrulis photographed a full group of figurines depicting a biblical scene created by the god carver Kazimieras Razma; the pillar shrine which contained the group stood in the churchyard of Degučiai Village of Šilutė District.

10. Akvilė Mikėnaitė, „Lietuvos kaimo dievdirbiai XIX a. pabaiga – XX a. pradžia“, Liaudies kultūra 6, 1993.

11. Paulius Galaunė, Lietuvių liaudies menas, Kaunas, 1930, p. 202.

12. The cards which contain negatives of the ethnographic photographic records of the National Museum of Lithuania indicate that the shrine containing the figurine stood at the farmstead of the carver, Petras Ivanauskas; the shrine was built in 1900.

13. The cards which contain negatives of the ethnographic photographic records of the National Museum of Lithuania indicate that the author of the sculptural group of Christ’s Funeral Homily was Juozapas Stankus born in 1894 in Pazimkalnis Village. The shrine was built around 1935. Photograph by Juozas Petrulis, 1956.

14. Ignas Končius, Žemaičių kryžiai ir koplytėlės, Chicago, 1965, p. 100.

15. Skaidrė Urbonienė, Religinė liaudies skulptūra XIX a. –XX a. I pusėje,  Vilniaus dailės akademijos leidykla, 2015, p. 84.

16. Lietuvos šventieji globėjai, Kaunas: Šviesa, 2010, p. 162.

17. Marija Matušakaitė, „Portretas XVI-XVIII a. Lietuvoje“,Vilnius: Mokslas, 1984, p. 28–29.

18. Algė Jankevičienė, „Lietuvos medinės bažnyčios, koplyčios ir varpinės“, Vilnius, 2007, p. 79.

19. Rima Valinčiūtė, „XVII-XVIII a. Jėzaus prie stulpo vaizdai Lietuvoje, Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis 35“, 2004, p. 89.

20. Dalia Vasiliūnienė, „Žemaičių Kalvarija. Piligriminio centro istorija ir dailė XVII –XIX a.“, Vilnius: Aidai, 2010, p. 283

21. Motiejus Valančius, „Gyvenimas švenčiausios Marijos Panos“, Raštai  3, 2006, Vilnius: Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos institutas, p. 275-277.

22. Giedrė Mickūnaitė, „Stebuklingasis Dievo Motinos atvaizdas ir graikiškos” tapybos tradicija Trakų parapinėje bažnyčioje“, Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis 69, 2013, p. 55-56.

23. Regimanta Stankevičienė, „Stebuklingi Lietuvos dominikonų provincijos paveikslai“, Acta academiae artium Vilnensis 25, 2002, p. 200.

24. Jolita Liškevičienė 21, „Pažaislio Švč. Mergelės Marijos su kūdikėliu Jėzumi paveikslas: kūrinio ikonografijos kilmė ir jo reikšmės kontekstas“, Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis 69, 2013, p. 197.

25. Laima Šinkūnaitė, „Pažaislio kamandulių Švč. Mergelės Marijos su Kūdikiu gėlių vainike paveikslas kaip maldos ir tikėjimo kelrodis“, SOTER 44(72), 2012, p. 116.

26. Motiejus Valančius, „Žyvatai šventųjų“ ir „Gyvenimas šventųjų Dievo“, Raštai 2, 2003; Raštai 2, 2003, Vilnius: Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos institutas; „Žyvatai šventųjų“ ir „Gyvenimas šventųjų Dievo“, Raštai 2, 2003; „Gyvenimas švenčiausios Marijos Panos“, „Žyvatas Jėzaus Kristaus Viešpaties mūsų“, „Pradžia ir išsiplėtimas katalikų tikėjimo“, Raštai 3, 2006, Vilnius: Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos institutas.